### Introduction to Operators in R Language

In R language, different types of operators (symbols) are used to perform mathematical and logical computations. R Language is enriched with built-in operators.

## Table of Contents

### Operators in R

The types of operators in the R language are:

- Arithmetic Operators
- Relational Operators
- Logical Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Miscellaneous Operators

### Arithmetic Operators in R

The arithmetic operators in R can be used to perform basic mathematical computations (such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) on numbers or elements of the vectors. The following are some examples, related to arithmetic operators.

# Add two vectors v1 <- c(3,4,5,6) v2 <- 1:4 print(v1+v2) # Subtract 2nd vector from 1st v2 - v1 # Multiply both vectors v1 * v2 # Divide the 1st vector witht the 2nd v1/v2 # Compute the remainder by dividing 1st vector with 2nd v1%%v2 # Compute the Quotient by division of 1st vector with the second v1%/%v2 # Compute raised to power of other vecotor v1^v2

### Relational Operators in R

The relational operators are used for comparison purposes. When comparing elements of two vectors, each element of the first vector is compared with the corresponding element of the second vector and results in a Boolean value. The examples are:

# less than comparison v1 < v2 # greater than comparison v1 > v2 # exactly equal comparison v1 == v2 # less than or equal to comparison v1 <= v2 # greater than or equal to comparison v1 >= v2 # not equal to comparison v1 != v2

### Logical Operators in R

The logical operators are used to compare vectors having types of logical (TRUE or FALSE), numeric, or complex numbers. The vectors having values greater than 1 are all considered logical TRUE values.

The examples that make use of logical operators are:

L1 <- c(2, TRUE, 2+2i, FALSE) L2 <- c(4, 1, 3+1i, TRUE) # logical AND Operator (Results in TRUE if corresponding elements of vectors are TRUE only) L1 & L2 # logical OR Operator (Results in TRUE, if either corresponding element of a vector is TRUE L1 | L2 # logical NOT Operator (Results in opposite logical value) !L1

The logical operators && and || consider the first element of the vectors and give a vector of a single element as output. The && (AND) operator takes the first element of both the vectors and gives the TRUE only if both elements are TRUE. The || (OR) operator takes the first element of both vectors and gives the TRUE if one of them is TRUE.

# && Operator L1 && L2 # || Operator L1 || L2

### Assignment Operators in R

The assignment operators are used to assign values to vectors or variables. The examples are

# <-, =, and <<- assignment operator (Left Assignment) x1 <- c(3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) x2 = c(3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) x3 <<-c(3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) # ->, --> (Right Assignment) x4 -> c(3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) x5 ->>c(3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

### Miscellaneous Operators in R

These operators are used for specific purposes and are not general mathematical or logical computers. These operators include the colon operator, %in% operator, and %*% operator. The Colon operator generates the series of numbers in sequence for a vector. The %in% identifies an element that belongs to a vector and multiplies a matrix with its transpose, matrix multiplication.

# Colon (:) Operator 2:10 # %in% Operator v1 <- c(5, 6, 4, 7, 8, 9, 2, 3, 4) 4 %in% v1 # %*% Operator M = matrix(c(3,5,6, 3,2,4), nrow = 2, ncol= 3) m%*%t(M)