The logical vectors in R Language are the vectors whose elements are `TRUE`

, `FALSE`

, or `NA`

(Not Available). R language allows the easy manipulation of logical (or relational) quantities. The `TRUE`

and

values are often used to represent the conditions or Boolean expressions.`FALSE`

## Table of Contents

In R, the reserved words `TRUE`

and `FALSE`

are often abbreviated as T and F, respectively. However, the T and F are not reserved words and hence can be overwritten by the user. Therefore, instead of T and F; it is better to use `TRUE`

and `FALSE`

.

Logical vectors in R can be created by:

- Direct assignment of
`TRUE`

and`FALSE`

values to the elements of a vector - By using conditions (use of logical or comparison operators) on elements of the vectors. (Operators in R Language)
- Using ifelse statement

### Creating Logical Vectors in R Using Direct Assignment

v1 <- c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE) print(v1) ## Output [1] TRUE FALSE TRUE

### Creating Logical Vectors using Comparison Operators

x <- 5 y <- 10 v2 <- x > y print(v2) ## Output FALSE

data <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) v3 <- data < 3 print(v3) ## Output [1] TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE

### Creating Logical Vectors using ifelse Statement

The `ifelse`

statement can also be used to create/generate logical vectors in R Language. For example,

data <- c(3, 4, 6, 8, 4, 4, 6, 10, -5) v4 <- ifelse(data > 5, TRUE, FALSE) print(v4) ## Output [1] FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE

From the above examples, the logical vectors are usually generated by conditions. The length of the logical vector will be the same as that of the vectors to which the condition is applied. Depending on the condition, the corresponding elements result in `FALSE`

if the element of the vectors does not meet the condition specified and `TRUE`

where it is.

### Logical Operators

The following is the list of logical operators

Logical Operator | Short Description |
---|---|

< | Less than |

> | Greater than |

<= | Less than or Equal to |

>= | Greater than or Equal to |

== | Exactly Equal to |

!= | Not Equal to |

In addition to logical operators, the relational/logical operators are:

Operator | Short Description |
---|---|

& (and) | It takes two logical values and returns `TRUE` only if both values are `TRUE` themselves |

| (or) | It takes two logical values and returns `TRUEÂ ` if just one value is `TRUE` . |

! (not) | It negates the logical value itâ€™s used on |

### Use of Logical Operators

#### Filtering Data

The logical vectors in R language are commonly used for filtering the data. For example,

data <- data.frame(x = c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5), y = c("a", "b", "c", "d", "e")) filtered_data <- data[data$x > 3, ]

#### Ordinary Arithmetic

Logical vectors may be used in ordinary arithmetic, in which case they are coerced into numeric vectors, `FALSE`

becoming 0 and `TRUE`

becoming. For example,

x = c(TRUE, FALSE, FALSE, TRUE) y = c(5, 10, 6, 15) x+y ## Output [1] 6 10 6 16 sum(x) ## Output [1] 2

Logical vectors in R language are a fundamental tool for working with conditions and Boolean expressions. Understanding how to create, manipulate, and use logical vectors is essential for effective data analysis and programming in R.

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